Qselect jobs with undefined resources (type = string/string_array)

as the title stated, could we do a single qselect to get the goal.
e.g. we have plenty of jobs with -l software=wrf -l software=matlab respectively, also we might have some test job with qsub – /bin/sleep 100, which may not have the ‘software’ resource, can we do a single qselect to get those ‘sleep’ jobs and skip those jobs have their ‘software’ resource set (the value is not important as i only care about those ones not set ‘software’) .